Author guidelines for PhD theses


Guide for doctoral candidate



Steps and phases in publishing your PhD

  1. You have passed pre-examination, your PhD has been language edited, you have asked for reprint permissions for your PhD articles and you have received a permission from UniOGS to defend your thesis.
  2. Contact the Nordia editor about the publication of your PhD. They can send you the publication offer template that is up to date. 
  3. Fill out the publication offer and send it to the editor. The publication offer will be confirmed in the next meeting of the board of The Geographical Society of Northern Finland.
  4. Agree with the editor about the timetable and send the files/information to the editor.
  5. The layout editing will begin.
  6. Once the layout editing is done, you will be asked to review the proofs. Check the proofs version.
  7. The layout editor will make the corrections for the final print/electronic publication version. 
  8. You will receive the final version of the thesis ready for print and publication. The editor will handle the publication of the thesis in -site.
  9. Contact the printing house (more information below).
  10. Receive the printed copies from the printing house.
  11. Remember to distribute the printed copies to correct places (to PSMS, university pcs to Pegaus library, public display copy in Tree of science, faculty etc. -> see publication offer)
  12. The online version will be published 1-2 weeks before the defense date in the -site.


Publication offer

Publishing in Nordia Geographical Publications -series (Nordia) requires submitting a publication offer to Geographical Society of Northern Finland (Send it to the editor who will forward it). The board of the Geographical Society of Northern Finland will process the publication offer in a meeting. Already before submitting the publication offer, it is advised to contact the editor (, who can give more information regarding the timetable of the next meeting and other editorial works possibly in progress, which may affect the timetable of thesis editing. Publication offer should contain information about manuscript headline and name of the author and also information about the number of copies to be printed and who pays the printing. Publication offer form can be acquired from the editor.


Manuscript preparation

Main text

The main text should be provided in doc/docx format written with spacing 1.0 and font Times New Roman size 12. Leave an empty space between every paragraph.

All text formatting should be removed (including hyphenation and indentations), except italicized texts in citations (or where italic is otherwise relevant, e.g. latin names of species, emphases, titles of books).

Direct citations should always be in quotation marks. Citations longer than twenty words should be separated into their own paragraphs. Missing passages in the quotations should be marked with: [...]. Added explanations inside the quotations should be marked: [no italics].

Indicate the hierarchy of headlines with numbering (e.g. 1 Main title, 1.1 Subtitle. 1.1.1 Subtitle). No more than three levels is recommended.

Cleary mark the places of tables and figures and equations in the main text, including their captions (e.g. ###Table 1. Caption goes here). Submit all tables and figures as separate files.

Footnotes are not recommended. If necessary, mark their places in the text the same way as with tables and figures (e.g. ###Footnote 1. Write footnote here).

Either British English or American English spelling is permissible as long as chosen spelling is consistent within the manuscript.

  • Author publishing in Nordia is responsible for providing a proper language check (spell check and grammar check) before starting the editing process.


Tables and figures

Tables and figures are provided in electronic format in separate files.

Tables should be submitted as excel or word files.

Recommended format for figures is pdf and for photos jpg/jpeg with high resolution (minimum of 300 dpi). Other possible formats for all figures are eps/tiff/jpeg/jpg/png with minimum resolution of 300 dpi. Graphs made in Excel can be provided as excel files.

When planning the figures and tables, it is adviced to take into account that the Nordia is of size B5.

Equations are provided in pdf format and as high resolution as possible.

Figures, tables and photos should be provided in a colors that are readable in grey-scale. Any printed colour pictures are paid by the author. In electronic format it is possible to have also colour pictures without any extra charge.


Required additional information and files

In a separate doc/docx file, please provide additional information including

  • supervisors, reviewers and opponent information (title & name, unit/department/faculty, university/organization). Date and time of the defense and the physical space in which the defense will take place (lecture hall/room)
  • Abstract in English (max. 800 words) and keywords (3-7). If the author so chooses, an additional translated Finnish version of the abstract can be included. Author is responsible for providing the translated and proofread version of the abstract.
  • List of original publications (in case of article dissertation), including re-printing statement. Example of reprinting statement:
    • Reprinted with the permission of Taylor & Francis Group. Originally published in Journal Title. Available online: (

OR with author’s accepted manuscript version

    • This is the author’s accepted manuscript of an article published as the version of record in Journal Title, Taylor & Francis 2019 Informa UK Limited. Available online: (
  • Author contributions (in case of article dissertation)
    • if presented in table format, please provide it in a separate file
  • Glossary (if relevant)
  • Acknowledgements
  • Short author introduction/biography for the backcover of the thesis (max 190 words). You may also include a photo of your choice (photo is framed in a round shape)

In case of an article dissertation, please provide pdf files of original publications to be included in the dissertation as appendices. Original publications can be published in printed (and online) version(s) depending on the reprinting permission or the license of the publisher. Author is responsible for applying re-printing permissions.



Guide for in-text citations and the preparation of the reference list is at the bottom of this page!



Timetable of each work is agreed with the editorial team of the Geographical Society of Northern Finland. When providing the publication offer, the tentative timetable should be stated. When the board of the Geographical Society of Northern Finland has accepted the publication offer, a more specific time table will be agreed on:

  1. Date when the editorial team should have all the material so that the editing process may start.
  2. Date when the editing should be finished, and the work is given back to the author ready for print.

Before printing, the author will receive an edited proof version for inspection and last corrections. Only technical changes are made at this point.

If material is not with editorial team on agreed date, the finishing date of the work may shift as many working days as it has been initially delayed. 


Checking the layout edited proofs

You have submitted all the necessary files and information regarding the publication of the thesis. After checking them, the editor will send the files to the layout editor. Once the layout editor is done with their work, either the editor or the layout editor will ask you to review the layout edited version for mistakes/corrections.

Please check the layout edited version carefully and pay special attention to little details like formatting of headings, page numbers, placement of tables/figures etc. You can mark the corrections in the PDF by first highlighting the mistake/correction and then attaching a comment on that highlight on how it should be corrected (Adobe/PDF-Xchange Editor). Please review the proofs and provide the corrections within 7 days after the proofs have been sent to you.

Your thesis should be language edited and proofread already before submitting the thesis for publication. Please focus especially on mistakes and corrections and refrain from making large edits to the text as this unnecessarily burdensome to the layout editor. 



What happens when the layout editing is ready?


  1. When the layout editing is ready, the editor will send the doctoral candidate the PDFs that are ready for print (cover + interior of the PhD)
  2. The doctoral candidate will contact the printing house and asks for a printing quota of XX pcs (defined in the publication offer) of printed PhD's (+ possible loose leaf copies for the defense -> check from your supervisor, depends if the defense is online or in person). At the same time, it is good to inform the printing house of your preferred timetable for printing, especially if the defense date is close and you are in a hurry.
  3. The printing house will give out an offer and the candidate will then confirm the offer (you can check from the editor whether the offer is okay).
  4. The candidate will submit the PDF files ready for print to the printing house.
  5. Along with the submission, the candidate will ask to divide the invoice to two: An invoice for 27 pcs will be send to PSMS and the invoice for the remaining XX pcs (+ loose leaf copies) will be send to the candidate. The PSMS invoice will be directed to the following address -> Pohjois-Suomen Maantieteellinen Seura (, Pentti Kaiteran katu 1, 90014 Oulun yliopisto, Maantieteen tutkimusyksikkö, PL3000. The invoice for the remaining pcs will be directed to the candidate themselves.
  6. In this phase remember to give the printing house the delivery address of the print PDFs -> usually it is the easisest to have them all delivered to the Geography Research Unit.
  7. Additional information that you can remind the printing house of: The National Library's 6 complimentary copies (already included in the total in the publication offer) that the printing house will deliver to the National Library and printing details of the NGP -series -> Size B5 Glued, Cover 260 g Invercote Creato (or similar coated), 4/0 color print, Interior 100 g G-Print, 1/1 color print (NB. if you want colored pages also in the printed version, please indicate the number of colored pages when asking for the printing quota).
  8. If you have enough time until the defense date and you want to check the quality of the print, you can ask the printing house to deliver you a print proof to check. The printing house will send you one exemplary copy of the printed thesis and you can check if there are any print related errors in the copy (wrong/weird colors, errors in ink etc. etc.). Please note that in this phase changing the content in thesis (changing text, tables etc.) will result in additional costs since the printing house will have to edit the print files. Only check errors related to print quality. Please note that checking the print proofs will delay the final delivery of the print theses for at least 1 week. If you are in a hurry in terms of the defense date, checking print proofs might not be viable or needed.
  9. Your printed theses have been delivered from print. Remeber to distribute the copies to PSMS (27 pcs, inform the editor where they are and they will be pick them up) and the university (-> Pegasus library 3 pcs, 1 display copy in Trees of Science at the front of Pegasus, the faculty 2 pcs, our unit) 



The author is responsible for acquiring quotes from printing houses if needed, and submitting the work to print. The need for asking printing quotes is discussed together with the editor and layout editor. Layout editor assists with the technical details considering printing.

The number of copies needed to be printed is seen in the publication offer template. It is advised to check the latest numbers from the editor.

Possible places where to print:

Punamusta Oy

Grano (Oulun Kopiokeskus Oy) 



Geographical Society of Northern Finland pays the obligatory copies of the society. Doctoral candidate (or her/his project, employer etc.) is responsible for paying the obligatory university copies and the personal copies of the author.

Candidate can apply for compensation from Acta for the university's obligatory copies and part of the candidate's copies (in total up to 29 pcs) (see instructions below).

When sending your thesis to print, it is recommended to ask the printing house to split the invoice and direct the bill of PSMS's obligatory copies to PSMS (Pohjois-Suomen Maantieteellinen Seura, Pentti Kaiteran katu 1, 90014 Oulun yliopisto, Maantieteen tutkimusyksikkö PL3000) and the rest of the bill to the candidate.


Applying for compensation from obligatory university copies

The doctoral candidate can apply for compensation from the obligatory copies of the university (see Acta pages: 


The doctoral candidate is responsible for paying all the colour pictures in the printed format. In the electronic format, there may be colour pictures without any extra charge.

The Geographical Society of Northern Finland has the right to sell and distribute any work published in Nordia.

The Geographical Society of Northern Finland has the right to publish the thesis in electronic format in the society’s or Nordia’s web pages. 



Remember to ask written permission from publishers to reprint any previously published material in Nordia (e.g. articles). Permission should also be asked for article manuscripts that might be currently in press or accepted to be published elsewhere. At the same time, it is advised to ask permission to republish previously published figures or tables if they are used in the summary section of the thesis.

Permission should also be asked for selling the printed thesis. Note that this can be a time-consuming process! When asking the permission, it should be stated that thesis containing the articles is sold 6 pieces at most, and articles are not included in the electronic format of the thesis. 


Things to remember:

  • Remember to be in contact well in advance with the editor in the finishing phases of your PhD.
  • Send the material to the editor in time.
  • Do the language check and needed corrections before delivering the material for editing.
  • Make sure the figures and tables are in the right format and size before sending the material for editing.
  • Go through the layout-edited version (.pdf) carefully. Before printing, there is still some time for changes.
  • Check at least these:
    • page numbering
    • table of contents
    • hyphenation
    • front and back cover
    • text in the covers
    • pictures and tables and their captions
  • Order the loose-leaf copies of the thesis in a folder for yourself, opponent(s) and custodian (kustos). Folders can be bought in Punamusta.
  • Remind the printing office of sending the complimentary copies.
  • The doctoral candidate is responsible for:
    • Providing the publication offer to the board on the Geographical Society of Northern Finland
    • Asking printing quote(s) from printing house
    • Ordering the prints form printing house (including the sending of the material to the printing house)
    • Proofreading and accepting the edited version of the thesis
    • Distributing the thesis



In the text, references should be indicated by giving the author’s name and the year of publication (Hjort et al. 2010; Varanka & Luoto 2012; Alahuhta & Heino 2013).

- All references in the text and notes must be specified by the authors’ last names and date of publication together with page numbers if given.

- Do not use ibid., op. cit., infra., supra. Instead, show the subsequent citation of the same source in the same way as the first.

- Where et al. is used in citations in the body of the text, this should always be italic.


In-text citation examples


Author’s name in the text is followed with year in parentheses:

... Elden (2013) has argued ...

If author’s name is not in the text, insert last name and year:

... several works (Elden 2013) have described ...

The page number follows the year, separated by a colon and en dash for page numbering:

... it has been noted (Elden 2013: 13–26) that ...

Give both names with two authors, joined by ‘&’; use et al. if there are three or more authors:

... it has been stated (Agnew & Livingstone 2011) ...

... some investigators (Hjort et al. 2010) ...

If there is more than one reference to the same author and year, insert a, b, etc. in both the text and the reference list. If two or more references by the same author are cited together, separate the dates with a comma:

... it was described (Swyngedouw 2017a, 2017b) ...

… for example this was found (Swyngedouw 2011, 2014, 2017) …

Start with the oldest publication.

Enclose within a single pair of parentheses a series of references, separated by semicolons:

... and it has been noted (Elden 2013; Hjort et al. 2010; Varanka & Luoto 2012) ...

Order alphabetically by author names.

Enclose within the parentheses any brief phrase associated with the reference (for example: see, e.g., cf.):

... (cf. Ahlqvist & Sirviö 2019: 1–4)

For an institutional authorship, supply the minimum citation from the beginning of the complete reference. For authorless articles or studies, use the name of the magazine, journal, newspaper or sponsoring organization, and not the title of the article:

... a recent statement (Sosiaali- ja terveysministeriö 2019: 30–70) ...

... it was stated (Kaleva 2020) that ...


Reference list

References are listed alphabetically at the end of the paper under the heading References. References must be separated by a 1 cm hanging indentation from the second line. Names of journals and books should be italicized. Avoid capital letters but for first words of a sentence and proper names. Give journal titles in full with volume: number, inclusive pages. Page numbers are separated with the en-dash (longer than the hyphen).

- Check that the list is in alphabetical order. Check that all periodical data are included – volume, issue and page numbers, publisher, place of publication, etc. Do not abbreviate journal titles.

- Names should be in upper and lower case.

- Where several references have the same author(s), do not use ditto marks or em dashes; the name must be repeated each time.

- References with multiple authors where the first-named author is the same should be listed in chronological order. For example:

Kellokumpu V & Toivanen M (2013)

Kellokumpu V & Karjalainen O (2014)

Kellokumpu V, Toivanen M & Karjalainen O (2017)




Journal article (link to DOI if available)

Rozman A, Diaci J & Batič F (2013) Functional analysis of vegetation on alpine treeline ecotone in the Julian and Kamnik-Savinja Alps in Slovenia. European Journal of Forest Research 132(4): 579–591.

Ahlqvist T & Sirviö H (2019) Contradictions of spatial governance: Bioeconomy and the management of state space in Finland. Antipode 51(2): 395–418.


Journal article ahead of print (link to DOI if available)

Dunnett O, Maclaren AS, Klinger J, Lane KMD & Sage D (2017) Geographies of outer space: Progress and new opportunities. Progress in Human Geography.

If DOI not available use date of online publication:

Dunnett O, Maclaren AS, Klinger J, Lane KMD & Sage D (2017) Geographies of outer space: Progress and new opportunities. Progress in Human Geography [Online 21 December 2017].



Elden S (2013) The birth of territory. University of Chicago Press, Chicago. 

Jessop B (2016) The state: Past, present, future. Polity Press, London.

Deleuze G (1994 [1968]) Difference and repetition [Différence et répetition]. Translated by Patton P. Athlone Press, London.


Chapter of book

Agnew J & Livingstone D (2011) Introduction. In Agnew J & Livingstone D (eds.) The SAGE handbook of geographical knowledge, 1–18. Sage, London.

Sirviö H & Luukkonen J (2020) Metropolitanizing a Nordic state? City-regionalist imaginary and the restructuring of the state as a territorial political community in Finland. In Armondi S & De Gregorio Hurtado S (eds.) Foregrounding urban agendas: The new urban issue in European experiences of policy-making, 211–227. Springer, New York.


Edited book

Brown T, McLafferty S & Moon G (2010; eds.) A Companion to health and medical geography. Wiley-Blackwell, Chichester.



Hokkanen J, Savikko H, Koutonen H, Rannikko H, Rinne T & Pirilä M (2020) Suomen mineraaliklusterin kilpailukyky- ja vaikuttavuustutkimus. Valtioneuvoston selvitys- ja tutkimustoiminnan julkaisusarja 15:2020. Valtioneuvoston kanslia, Helsinki.

Wahlsten J (2020) To assemble society anew? The political economy of contemporary initiatives of socio-ecological transformation. Helsinki Centre for Global Political Economy Working Paper 02/2020. University of Helsinki, Helsinki.



Scarchilli C (2020) Mario Zucchelli Radar, Disdrometric and snow gauge measurements during summer precipitation events. PANGAEA.



Tilastokeskus (2020) Energiaturpeen kulutus. (accessed 4 January 2021).


Newspaper/magazine (link to website if online article)

Tilvis E (2019) Asiantuntijat ehdottavat Oulun huvipuistoa pääväylien varsille – esille nousivat muun muassa Kiimingin Välikylä ja Kempeleen Zeniitti. Kaleva, 8 August 2019. (accessed 4 January 2021).

BBC (2016) Mosul battle: 'Iraqi forces' tortured and killed villagers. BBC, 10 November 2016. (accessed 25 November 2016).


Published/unpublished theses and dissertations


Clark JM (2001) Referencing style for journals. PhD Thesis, University of Leicester.

Wikstrom A (2013) The challenge of change: Planning for social urban resilience. Master's Thesis, Stockholm University.

Published in a series:

Ala-Hulkko T (2020) Integrating accessibility analysis in ecosystem service and disservice mapping. Nordia Geographical Publications 49(3): 1–73.

Virta L (2020) Exploring the diversity patterns of benthic diatoms along environmental, spatial and temporal gradients in the Baltic Sea. Walter and Andrée de Nottbeck Foundation Scientific Reports 48: 1–40.